H.J. HEINZ AND THE PURE FOOD AND DRUG ACT OF 1906: CONCERNED CITIZEN OR CLEVER CAPITALIST?
    Anne L. Slivka '08
     
    “This is no fairy story and no joke; the meat would be shoveled into carts and the man who did the shoveling would not trouble to lift out a rat even when he saw one.” That was the standard of the food processing industry, as described by Upton Sinclair in The Jungle,1 at the dawn of the 20th century: an age blemished by sweatshops, firetrap factories, callous indifference to industrial accidents, and many filthy food processing plants.2 During this same period, however, H.J. Heinz, a food manufacturing entrepreneur, became a model of enlightenment for his pristine factories and his benevolent treatment of workers. But, first and foremost, Heinz was a businessman who was always searching for new ways to place his products above those of his competitors.3 So at a time when the nation’s awareness of the need for governmental regulation of the food industry was growing because of vivid descriptions similar to Sinclair’s,4 Heinz’s strong moral beliefs combined with his savvy marketing sense led him to campaign for the passage of the first Pure Food and Drug Act. Heinz realized that with the Act and the growing public awareness of the horrors of the unregulated food industry he, as the only food manufacturer to publicly support the Act, could position his own company as the premier pure, sanitary food manufacturer.5 Heinz’s support, in fact, was crucial in convincing President Roosevelt finally to support the Pure Food and Drug Act.6 After the passage of the Act, Heinz worked to force other food companies to change their practices even as they tried to undermine the new regulations.Thus, thanks to Heinz acting both as a concerned citizen and as a clever capitalist, the Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906 was not only passed, but also effectively enforced.
     
    Heinz, the benevolent and brilliant founder of the Heinz Company, traced his high moral standards and concern for others to his own upbringing. He was born in 1844 to German immigrants who owned a brickyard in Sharpsburg, Pennsylvania. His parents, especially his mother, were “deeply religious, disciplined,” hardworking, and “clever.” From them, he learned to value maintaining high moral standards in the business world.8 Later when he was the head of his own international company, Heinz always remembered his modest origins. He even moved his family’s small Sharpsburg home to the center of his Pittsburgh factories as a reminder to himself and to his employees of his beginnings. This sense of morality inherited from his parents guided Heinz for the rest of his life and was what led him to be so different from his contemporaries.9 In1869, Heinz established his first company which produced a wide array of condiments and eventually morphed into the H.J. Heinz Company, in which ketchup was one of the flagship products.10 In direct response to seeing the especially deplorable conditions in Pittsburgh and the treatment of workers in the 1877 railroad strike in Pittsburgh by his contemporaries, Heinz refused to “park his moral precepts at the factory door,”11 like so many of his contemporaries did, in order to make a larger profit more quickly.12 Instead, Heinz, believing “heart power is better than horse power,” treated his workers humanely and benevolently. Thus, Heinz is dubbed by historians as “the Prince of Paternalism.”13
     
    One of the few people of his time to care, Heinz refused to allow his factories to be dirty, dangerous, or unsanitary. Instead, he was the first in the country to offer many unheard-of amenities for his workers. In his Pittsburgh factories, he went as far as to build locker rooms, dressing rooms, and dining rooms for his workers. He even provided clean, fresh, free uniforms to his employees so that they would not bring their dirty street clothes into the factory and he also provided an on-site manicurist along with indoor facilities for washing.14 Many other factory owners did not even have running water in their own homes!15 His dining rooms were even decorated with art to give the rooms a homier atmosphere than the usual cafeteria.16 His reason: “that the working day should be happy.”17 In contrast, many other companies at that time did not even have a cafeteria and some workers, such as those in the steel industry, were not even given time to eat.18 In fact, the Heinz factories were so luxurious and so unprecedented, with a swimming pool, gymnasium, and roof garden,19 that when a prominent philanthropist visited the Pittsburgh factory at the turn of the century, he said that “he had seen many wonderful things, but among the factories he knew ‘The Home of the 57’ was the most wonderful he had seen.”20
     
    Heinz, this benevolent prince, not only built unparalleled factories but also, more importantly, offered his workers many progressive benefits and became “a pioneer in what is now called ‘welfare work.’”21 Heinz generously gave his workers free life-insurance, free doctor and dentist services,23 and death insurance.24 Heinz even had a first aid station25 and an emergency hospital on site in his factories.26 As his personal secretary suggests he “did not do it to head off unrest [...] he did it because he thought it was right [...] and knew the priceless value of willing spirit.”27 However, Heinz also “thought it would pay the institution to give them [workers] aid in general matters of health.”28 Thus Heinz combined what he knew to be the only right way to treat his workers with a desire to profit.29After all, Heinz was a businessman first and foremost and knew quite well that his benevolent practices would make him millions (and would save him money and havoc: no Heinz employee ever went on strike or joined a union until 1937).30
     
    Heinz was not only a benevolent employer and a forward-thinking man, but he was also a maverick marketer who was always looking for new ideas to market his products more successfully.31 For example, he hired traveling salesmen to spread his message of quality food throughout the county.32 These salesmen would go as far as displaying sample Heinz products on linen table clothes with fancy china in local grocery stores. Cleverly, they would also dust off all Heinz products in the store and while doing that would place other companies’ foods behind Heinz’s.33 He also built a huge pier in Atlantic City as a tourist attraction, complete with huge signs and free samples, to promote his products,34 and then he built Manhattan’s first electric billboard to advertise the pier.35 He branded all his products with the clever saying “57 varieties,” which he created, not from how many products he made, but from seeing an advertisement for 21 shoes on a train. Apparently, he immediately decided that he also needed a catchy memorable number for his products.36
     
    Heinz’s ingenuity for promoting his products successfully, which was so evident later in his support for the Pure Food and Drug Act, also clearly manifested itself at the 1893 “World’s Fair Exposition in Chicago.”37 At this fair, visitors had to climb 43 stairs in order to get to the exhibits of food manufacturers.38 Of course, this discouraged potential customers from coming to Heinz’s very lavish exhibit.39 Heinz quickly recognized and fixed this problem by placing cards all across the fair ground advertising free “pickle pins” at the Heinz booth. People began coming “in such droves”40 to the Heinz booth that the floor actually started to collapse.41 At the end of the fair, the other food manufacturers honored Heinz for his ingenious “pickle pin” idea (which had brought customers to all of their booths also) by presenting a cup to him at a dinner in his honor. Ironically, it was these same men 10 years later who refused to support Heinz’s idea of having the government regulate their industry through the Pure Food and Drug Act.42
     
    Along with these brilliant marketing ploys, Heinz had always been committed to purity in his products. At the start of his business career, Heinz realized the importance of providing pure food. For example, before he founded the Heinz Company, he sold horseradish, but he did not sell the horseradish in the opaque brown bottles as his competitors did. Instead, he sold his horseradish in clear glass bottles so his customers could see its superb quality and purity.43 Similarly, later as head of the Heinz Company, he realized how his pristine factory conditions could be used to sell his products as sanitary and wholesome.44 So, he came up with his greatest promotional idea before he joined the quest for the Pure Food and Drug Act—he opened his Pittsburgh factories for public tours.45 Thus, Heinz began to aggressively promote his “immaculate model factory complex,”46 and he exploited his factory tours in advertisements. In one ad in Collier’s Weekly in 1908, Heinz printed: “The Heinz kitchens are immaculate in their cleanliness; the workers are neatly uniformed. We had 30,000 visitors last year. It is always safe to buy the products of an establishment that keeps its doors open.”47 Other food manufacturers would have never considered opening their factories to the public, but, unlike them, Heinz “had nothing to hide” in his factories.48 A 1904 picture of the inside of a Heinz pickle-packaging building shows the immaculate bright room in which 100 women wearing white caps and spotless white aprons bottled pickles.49 In an article in the company newsletter entitled “Our Open to the Public Policy,” Heinz himself says, “We believe they [our foods] are the finest foods that can be made anywhere. Why not let the public see how we do things and decide for themselves whether our products are what we claim them to be?”50 His idea worked: by 1900, there were 20,000 people touring his factories every year51 and, by 1911, there were 40,000.52 These visitors were all struck by the pristine factories and one even said, “I am surprised as well as pleased. I have always thought of a pickle establishment as an unsightly place. I shall never hesitate to use Heinz goods, whatever my prejudices against factory-prepared foods may have been.”53
     
    Heinz’s marketing genius and his lifelong commitment to purity led him to see the value of Heinz Products being considered as superior and purer than the rest of the market. “The young businessman wanted his name to be the first and only one [...] associated with pure, healthy, delicious mass-produced condiments.”54 As early as 1901, Heinz became one of the first companies to hire chemists and he is credited “for coining the term ‘quality control department.’”55 In contrast, other manufacturers’ processed foods were containing more and more harmful ingredients56 to keep manufacturing costs low.57 For example, one “Commercial Mushroom Ketchup” recipe consisted of beef livers and “no mushrooms at all” and contained chemical “coal-tar dyes” in it to make the ketchup look more edible. Many types of ketchup were even cooked in copper tubs with the result that the copper and ketchup formed “a poisonous substance.” In fact, according to an 1896 study in California, about 90% of ketchup brands “contained injurious ingredients” such as salicylic acid which is said to have caused deaths.58
     
    As a result of these inferior ketchups flooding the market, Heinz saw the immense potential to increase his profits and to increase the health of the nation, if he could create, sell, and advertise a product as chemically pure. But, up to 1903, Heinz’s own ketchup also contained salicylic acid and also benzoic acid along with coal-tar dyes. Before this time, Heinz had actually thought that preservatives and chemicals were necessary to keep the food edible. However, after learning these chemicals were not safe, he quickly changed his opinion. Mueller, a Heinz executive, dramatically showed this change of heart after attending the 1904 Pure Food Congress. He declared “that Heinz needed to discontinue using all preservatives,” as “if it were possible to make preservative-free foods, [...] it would revolutionize the present methods of manufacture.”59 Heinz was not only a marketing genius, but also a visionary who committed to new technologies and processes to give his company competitive advantages.
     
    And so, at the beginning of the 20th century, G. F. Mason, the chief scientist at Heinz’s food labs, began searching for the perfect preservative for ketchup. However, it was not easy as, in his words, “Every possible means of preserving with [...] natural agents [vinegar] were used, but without satisfactory results.”60 He found that ketchup fermented too quickly without preservatives and that the fermented ketchup would not sell as it did not look very appetizing (and was full of mold and bacteria).61 Eventually, Mason was able to discover a good preservative-free recipe and thus “revolutionize” the industry.
     
    By 1906, Heinz was producing “five million bottles of preservative-free ketchup” a year. He immediately began marketing it and “proudly printed on the neck label of the ketchup bottle that the contents were free of benzoate of soda [a preservative].”62 This was the first of many methods he used to promote his now preservative-free ketchup. But, as a result, many other manufacturers claimed that the Heinz ketchup had some sort of “secret chemical ingredient,” a false accusation.63 The current FDA historian writes, in fact, “All the [Heinz] company did was create what eventually became known as ‘good manufacturing practices’ [...] in a sanitary manufacturing plant.”64
     
    The one drawback of Heinz’s new preservative-free “Keystone Brand” of ketchup, which would lead to his support for 
    regulation of the food industry, was that it was more expensive to produce and, therefore, cost 15 to 20 cents more than competitors’ products. Thus producing the morally-correct, pure product was a huge risk for Heinz and his company,66 and he had to convince consumers that it was worth spending more money on “purer” products. He hoped that, by waging a huge awareness campaign of the need for “pure” ketchup and food, he would be able to justify his higher prices to consumers and also force his competitors to change their own manufacturing techniques, which would cause them to lose money or lose business altogether if they did not change.67 These competitors were selling their products for considerably less than Heinz, and Heinz wanted them to pay the price for producing their products cheaply and using “dangerous and dishonest practice[s].” He wanted their products branded as 
    low quality.68
     
    At this critical junction, and not before, as he now had a “pure” ketchup of high quality and needed to justify his higher prices, Heinz fully joined the quest for a Pure Food and Drug Act to regulate the food processing industry. By this time, people in the United States were becoming increasingly alarmed by the problem of “adulterated” food and the government was starting to feel the pressure to regulate.69 Americans had been shocked when European countries implemented their own pure food laws and banned American processed food imports from entering their countries “on the grounds that they were diseased.”70 Some states had begun passing pure food laws, but had been unable to enforce them.71 Groups, such as the “Association of Packers of Pure Canned Goods” in Pittsburgh, had formed.72 Upton Sinclair’s The Jungle had been published in 1906, exposing the unsanitary conditions in meat-packing factories to the immense horror of the public.73 Additionally, the 1904 World Fair’s exhibit had displayed over 2,000 “adulterated” food products.74 Furthermore, when rotten canned food had been fed to soldiers in the Spanish-American war and made them sick, the public had become outraged. The press attention to problems with the adulterated food “kindled a fire of public interest which no power on earth will ever be able to put out.”75 Yet, though a bill for a federal pure food and drug law “was introduced into the [...] Senate in 1889,” it was ignored every year for “the next 15 years.”76

    By the time Heinz joined the quest for a federal law to regulate the food industry,77 he felt that the entire food industry had been hurt by a few companies’ unsanitary practices.78 He believed that a law that would regulate the food industry, keep food products pure, require labeling of all ingredients in a product, and insure that manufacturers’ quality claims were true would earn back the public trust after all the bad publicity. Best of all for his company, since his products were already known for their purity, the Act would create a market niche for them that would even warrant his higher prices.79
     
    However, other companies were firmly opposed to any regulation and did not recognize the need to reestablish public 
    trust.80 They did not understand why Heinz wanted to allow government regulators into his factories.81 His competitors even spread “rumors that the company was in favor of prohibition [of liquor], which led to boycotts of Heinz products.”82 But Heinz, unlike his competitors, had nothing to fear from regulators in his factory: after all his factory tours had shown that he had “nothing to hide.”83 In fact, no other food manufacturer ever fully supported the Pure Food and Drug Act publicly as much as Heinz did. Riley, a Heinz executive in 1957, explained Heinz’s position: “He was risking his own business and his own position in the trade, because he knew in the long run it would be for the good of the food business and its best chance of survival.”84

    Finally, aside from these business reasons for supporting the Act, Heinz was a good man, as seen in his benevolent treatment of workers, and was genuinely concerned about innocent citizens unknowingly digesting harmful food. In fact, Heinz had always been against chemicals in food (even when they were in his own ketchup) and had always preferred home-made food similar to his mother’s.85 Therefore, Heinz welcomed government regulators into his factories and fought to make them come, all the while hoping that “regulation would make the industry respectable and trusted” again.86 Overall, “Like so much of Henry Heinz’s philosophy, the stand on pure food legislation was idealism and noble purpose compounded with pragmatic, self-interest.”87
     
    Thus H.J. Heinz assigned Howard Heinz (his son), Mueller, and Dow (two Heinz executives)88 to organize religious groups and newspapers to support a law on pure food89 and to work with Dr. Wiley, the Chief Chemist of the Federal Bureau of Chemistry,90 who later became the “father of the law.”91 In fact, Wiley’s name became during this time “a household word among the women of America [...] He inspired confidence [...] in the unselfish purity of his crusade.”92 Wiley contributed greatly to educating the public and government (which at that time was a “defender of the interests of ‘big business’” and the businesses’ cost cutting techniques) about the dangers of impure food. He “dramatically” aimed his speeches against the “Hosts of Satan” and made many enemies in the food manufacturing business, but not Heinz.93 Wiley’s most well known program was his 1902 “poison squad.”94 In this squad, he had government employees voluntarily agree to eat only what he gave them for five years, and with great publicity, he gave them foods with various chemicals (such as borax).95 Of course, the test subjects became very sick96 and suffered from flu-like symptoms and kidney troubles. This squad demonstrated first hand to the government and to the public the dangers of chemical additives in foods.97 Wiley also went on expansive lecture tours across the country promoting the pure food cause and arguing that a law to regulate the food industry was needed for the survival of the human race!98
     
    Despite all these efforts by Wiley and Heinz, there was still significant resistance to the regulation of the food industry and the prohibition of chemicals in processed food. Many felt that a possible Act violated their “personal liberty.”99 Some had questions over who should control interstate commerce of food,100 and others felt it would violate “states’ rights.”101 Furthermore, President Roosevelt was not in favor of the Act and had to be convinced to join the cause. Here, Heinz’s support became critical in helping Wiley change Roosevelt’s mind as Wiley and three Heinz executives102 with H.J. Heinz’s backing103 went to the White House in February 1905 to convince Roosevelt to support a potential Act.104 Roosevelt was “skeptical” from the beginning “of maverick businessmen espousing an unorthodox cause.”105 He asked the Heinz executives why they, processed food manufacturers, were at these meetings since the new Act would cost their industry a great deal of money and “restrict” them. Howard Heinz, H.J. Heinz’s son, responded by saying that the sanitary conditions that the law would enforce “would inspire a confidence in commercially prepared foods; and [as] my company would get its full share of the larger business; in helping the industry we should be helping ourselves.”106 Wiley then showed Roosevelt the harmful preservatives in Roosevelt’s own scotch causing Roosevelt to join the cause,107 though more for “pure drink” than “pure food!”108

    Thus, shortly after this scotch demonstration, Wiley’s, Heinz’s, and Roosevelt’s efforts culminated in Congress passing the Pure Food and Drug Act on the 23rd of June, 1906.109 Only 20 congressmen opposed it in both houses.110 The Act “created the Food and Drug Administration”111 and gave the administration authority to inspect and prevent corrupted food from being transported from state to state.112 It also required that manufacturers label all chemicals in their foods on the food bottle.113 Afterwards, Wiley wrote to Heinz and his executives to thank them: “I feel I should have lost the fight if I had not had that [your] assistance.”114

    But, the fight over the Pure Food and Drug Act was not over for Heinz, as many manufacturers immediately succeeded in undermining the Act by convincing the government over Heinz’s and Wiley’s objections to rule that small amounts of preservatives could be used safely in food. Thus after the passage of the Pure Food and Drug Act, Heinz launched massive advertising campaigns to increase public awareness even further of the dangers of chemicals in foods and to turn the public against other food manufacturers who were continuing to use chemicals.115 In a 1907 speech, Mueller, a Heinz executive, stated that Heinz did not advocate for laws that limited the amount of chemicals in foods but now advocated “that artificial preservatives should be eliminated without exception from all food for human consumption.”116 Heinz now was spending more money on advertising his ketchup than all his competitors combined. (Before the 1906 Act, he had spent barely anything on advertising his ketchup).117 At this time, Heinz also contributed to the formation of the “American Association for the Promotion of Purity in Foods” in 1909 to advocate against preservatives,118 of which his own Heinz executive, Dow, was chairman. In a 1911 article titled “Give Wiley Power, Food Men Demand” on the front page of the New York Times, Dow called for the “inspection of all factories” and a uniform standard for processed food as this “will increase the confidence of the public in prepared foods [which] is the best possible thing for the food industry.”119

    As part of his campaign to convince the public not to buy products with even small amounts of chemicals and not to undermine the Act, Heinz waged a “media blitz” of anti-preservative advertisements in 1908 and 1909.120 In these ads, he used all of his own reasons for joining the quest for the Act to convince the public to turn against other manufacturers. He declared that chemicals are harmful, that other manufacturers are lying about them, and that his own pure, expensive ketchup should be bought instead. For example, in The Saturday Evening Post printed on the 17th of October, 1908, Heinz placed an ad entitled “The Truth About Benzoate of Soda in Foods!: It is proven by the U.S. Gov’t Authorities to be injurious to health! It is often used to conceal low-grade materials.” Not only did Heinz state the Government’s position in the title, but in the corner of the ad he printed a miniature proclamation from the United States Department of Agriculture. He even linked the fact that more people had had kidney troubles in recent years due to the presence of benzoate in their food. Heinz advised the public to read the labels of all ketchup bottles and only buy the ones that they feel are safe, proclaiming Heinz Ketchups to be “free from benzoate of soda or artificial preservative of any kind.”121
     
    In other ads of this time, Heinz also wrote that other companies were undermining the Pure Food and Drug Act by printing their ingredient lists in tiny letters so that customers cannot read what is in the products. In contrast, he proclaimed that Heinz does not use any ingredients they are ashamed of, nor do they hide anything from the public. He also mentioned in ads that “it costs more to make ketchup from fresh, whole tomatoes, than [...] artificially preserved” to justify his higher prices. He argued that his foods are better for the consumer and, therefore, they are clearly worth the extra money.122 In a 1909 ad, Heinz proclaimed “You can avoid the danger of drugged food by getting Heinz Pure Food Products” and he advertised again his “open door” policy in his factories, how he never concealed anything from the public, and how pure his food was. It was the perfect campaign, linking good business and morality.123
     
    However, some labeled his campaign as “questionable advertising methods” which took advantage of people who have been poisoned by chemicals in food. In fact, the “editors of the Food Law Bulletin” said at this time, “[Heinz] isn’t doing it because he loves the great common people, but because he sees the opportunity for clever advertising.” He used preservatives himself for many years, but he is not apologizing for that. Instead he is “shouting, fussing and condemning as if they had never done this awful thing [themselves].”124 For example, in some ads, Heinz even went so far as to suggest that the government was going to confiscate all foods with preservatives, which was untrue. He advised grocers in ads to get rid of all of their food containing preservatives before it was too late and buy Heinz products instead.125

    Despite these questionable tactics, by 1915, most manufacturers had stopped using preservatives, at least in their ketchup, because of Heinz’s successful public awareness campaign,126 even though the government was still allowing small amounts.127 Heinz’s many ads and his “courageous stand” on pure foods had served their purpose. Heinz had helped to enforce the Pure Food and Drug Act which many companies had tried to undermine. Along the way, he had become the premier ketchup manufacturer and his products were recognized worldwide for quality and purity.128 He had successfully forced his competitors to change and had convinced consumers that Heinz products were worth the extra money.129
     
    Overall, H.J. Heinz “played a critical role in the enactment, interpretation, and enforcement of the 1906 statute”130 and he “was behind all [...] [the meetings with Roosevelt] up to the hilt.”131 In his role in the Act, H.J. Heinz was both a clever capitalist and concerned citizen who, unlike many of the infamous capitalists of the period, was able to run his business without compromising his personal beliefs or ethics. Heinz joined the quest for a federal Pure Food Act as a way for his business to prosper and as a way to implement his personal and business beliefs on the food industry at a national level with lasting effects. The Pure Food and Drug Act made commercial sense for his business, made sense for the country, and greatly impacted the health of the nation.132 Also, unlike many other capitalists of his time, Heinz left a huge mark on the industry in showing how workers should be treated and how important quality is to every aspect of a business. He succeeded in winning back trust for the food industry.133 If Heinz had not joined the pure food cause, Wiley might not have been successful and many manufacturers might still be using many more harmful preservatives and hazardous chemicals to conceal low quality food, which would impact the health of millions. But Heinz did support the Act and “risked everything [...] to defend a point of principle” in order to weaken his competitors, to justify his high prices, and because it was the right thing to do.134 Thanks to his unique character as a moral businessman, this country’s food manufacturers are more trustworthy today. 1 Upton Sinclair, The Jungle (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Robert Bentley, 1946) p. 135
    2 Robert C. Alberts, The Good Provider: H.J. Heinz and His 57 (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1973) p. 144
    3 Eleanor Foa Dienstag, In Good Company: 125 Years at the Heinz Table (1869-1994) (New York: Warner, 1994) p. 41
    4 Alberts, p. 169
    5 Suzanne White Junod, forward to Images of America: H.J. Heinz Company Debbie Foster and Jack Kennedy (Charleston, South Carolilna: Arcadia, 2006) p. 7
    6 Stephen Potter, The Magic Number: The Story of ‘57’ (London: Max Reinhardt, 1959) p. 69
    7 Sebastian Mueller, “Urges Prohibition of Artificial Preservatives,” Industry: A Magazine of Commerce and Finance 3, no. 2 (Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania: Merchants and Manufacturers Association of Pittsburgh, 1907) pp. 79-82
    8 Dienstag, pp. 21-22
    9 Heinz: The Story of an American Family prod. by Mary Rawson (Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania: WQED 1992)
    10 Dienstag, pp. 24-33
    11 Ibid., p. 33
    12 Potter, p. 20
    13 Dienstag, pp. 33-34
    14 E. D. McCafferty, Henry J. Heinz: A Biography (1923) pp.130-132
    15 Debbie Foster and Jack Kennedy, Images of America: H.J. Heinz Company (Charleston, South Carolina: Arcadia, 2006) p. 19
    16 “Girl’s Dining Room,” photograph (Pittsburgh, PA: H. J. Heinz Co., 1901), H.J. Heinz Company Collection, Historic Pittsburgh Image Collection, Library and Archives Division, Historical Society of Western Pennsylvania, http://images.library.pitt.edu (accessed March 2, 2007)
    17 McCafferty
    18 Margaret F. Byington, Homestead: The Households of a Mill Town (Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1974) p. 64
    19 McCafferty, pp. 130-132
    20 “C.E Leaders,” The 57 (Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania: H.J. Heinz Co., November, 1904) 16, Folder 20, Box 13, H.J. Heinz Co. Collection, Library and Archives, Historical Society of Western Pennsylvania, Senator John Heinz Pittsburgh Regional History Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
    21 McCafferty, p. 129
    22 Ibid., p. 132
    23 Dienstag, p. 35
    24 “Employees’ Association,” The 57 (Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania: H.J. Heinz Co., April, 1905) 15, Folder 20, Box 13, H.J. Heinz Co. Collection, Library and Archives, Historical Society of Western Pennsylvania, Senator John Heinz Pittsburgh Regional History Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
    25 McCafferty, p. 131
    26 Dienstag, p. 34
    27 McCafferty, p. 130
    28 Ibid., p. 131
    29 Heinz: The Ketchup Kings, prod. by Noah Morowitz (A&E Biography Television Networks, 1999)
    30 Dienstag, p. 71
    31 Ibid., p. 41
    32 “At Many Food Shows,” The 57: Exposition Number (Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania: H.J. Heinz Co., 1905) 11, Folder 20, Box 13, H.J. Heinz Co. Collection, Library and Archives, Historical Society of Western Pennsylvania, Senator John Heinz Pittsburgh Regional History Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
    33 Nancy F. Koehn, “Henry Heinz and Brand Creation in the Late Nineteenth Century: Making Markets for Processed Food,” The Business History Review 73, no. 3 (1999): Pittsburgh, PA: Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh Microfilm, pp. 387, 527
    34 Foster, p. 33
    35 Koehn, p. 380
    36 Foster, p. 22
    37 McCafferty, pp. 145-146
    38 Sandra Baker, Telephone Interview by author, March 2, 2007
    39 Koehn, p. 377
    40 Baker, Interview
    41 “Narrow Escape at World’s Fair,” New York Times (November 15, 1893) http://select.nytlines.com/mem/archivepdf?res=F00E11F73B5F1A738DDDAC0994D9415B8385F0D3 (accessed February 27, 2007)
    42 Baker, Interview
    43 Heinz: The Ketchup Kings
    44 Andrew F. Smith, Pure Ketchup: A History of America’s National Condiment (with Recipes) (Columbia, South Carolina: University of South Carolina Press, 1996) p. 96
    45 Koehn, p. 384
    46 Dienstag, p. 34
    47 H.J. Heinz Company, “The Unvarnished Truth about Benzoate of Soda in Foods,” advertisement, Collier’s Weekly November 4, 1908 (Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania: Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh Microfilm, pp. 26-27, 441)
    48 Dienstag, p. 45
    49 “Pickle Building,” photograph (Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania: H.J. Heinz Co., 1904) H.J. Heinz Company Collection, Historic Pittsburgh Image Collection, Library and Archives Division, Historical Society of Western Pennsylvania, http://images. library.pitt.edu (accessed March 2, 2007)
    50 “Our Open to the Public Policy” Summer Number of “57” (Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania: H.J. Heinz Co., 1912) 20, Folder 20, Box 13, H.J. Heinz Co. Collection, Library and Archives, Historical Society of Western Pennsylvania, Senator John Heinz Pittsburgh Regional History Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
    51 Dienstag, p. 34
    52 “Our Open to the Public Policy,” p. 21
    53 “A Record Broken,” The 57: Exposition Number (Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania: H.J. Heinz Co., 1905) 9, Folder 20, Box 13, H.J. Heinz Co. Collection, Library and Archives, Historical Society of Western Pennsylvania, Senator John Heinz Pittsburgh Regional History Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
    54 Koehn, p. 384
    55 Foster, p. 37
    56 Smith, p. 62
    57 Alberts, p. 168
    58 Smith, pp. 59-65
    59 Ibid., pp. 84-85
    60 Ibid., p. 85
    61 Ibid., p. 86
    62 Ibid., p. 86
    63 Junod, p. 7
    64 Ibid. p. 7
    65 Smith, pp. 84-87
    66 Heinz: The Ketchup Kings
    67 Junod, p. 7
    68 Alberts, p. 172
    69 Ibid., p. 169
    70 Smith, pp. 61-67
    71 Alberts, p. 169
    72 Ibid., p. 168
    73 Dienstag, p. 46
    74 Smith, p. 68
    75 Alberts, pp. 173-175
    76 Ibid., p. 169
    77 Ibid., p. 175
    78 Ibid., p. 171
    79 Junod, p. 7
    80 Ibid., p. 7
    81 Baker, Interview
    82 Dienstag, p. 46
    83 Ibid., p. 45
    84 Alberts, p. 172
    85 Potter, p. 69
    86 Alberts, p. 171
    87 Ibid., p. 172
    88 lbid., p. 172
    89 Dienstag, p. 46
    90 Alberts, p. 169
    91 Historic Meeting to Commemorate Fortieth Anniversary of Original Food and Drugs Act (New York: Commerce Clearing, 1946) p. 27
    92 Ibid., p. 3
    93 Alberts, pp. 170-171
    94 Smith, p. 64
    95 Alberts, pp. 173-174
    96 Smith, p. 64
    97 Alberts, p. 174
    98 Harvey W. Wiley, The History of a Crime Against Food Law: The Amazing Story of the National Food and Drugs Law Intended to Protect the Health of the People: Perverted to Protect Adulteration of Foods and Drugs (Washington, DC: Harvey Wiley, 1929) p. 402
    99 Alberts, p. 177
    100 Wiley, p. 51
    101 Alberts, p. 171
    102 Ibid., p. 172
    103 Potter, p. 69
    104 Smith, p. 68
    105 Alberts, p. 172
    106 Ibid., p. 276
    107 Dienstag, p. 46
    108 Potter, p. 69
    109 Dienstag, p. 46
    110 Alberts, p. 178
    111 Foster, p. 38
    112 Smith, p. 71
    113 Ibid., p. 69
    114 Foster, p. 38
    115 Smith, pp. 91-98
    116 Mueller, pp. 79-82
    117 Smith, p. 87
    118 “Food Producers Indorse Dr Wiley,” New York Times January, 26, 1909, http://select.nytimes.com/mem/archive/pdf?res=F00C15FD3B5512738DDDAF0A94D94058B898CF1D3 (accessed February 27, 2007)
    119 “Give Wiley Power, Food Men Demand,” New York Times November 16, 1911, http://select.nytimes.com/mem/archivepdf?res=F00C15FD3B5512738DDDAF0A94D9405B898CF1D3 (accessed February 27, 2007)
    120 Smith, pp. 95-97
    121 H.J. Heinz Company, “The Truth about Benzoate of Soda in Foods!,” advertisement, Saturday Evening Post October 17, 1908 (Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania: Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh Microfilm, pp. 24-25, 569)
    122 H.J. Heinz Company, “The Unvarnished Truth,” pp. 26-27
    123 H.J. Heinz Company, “What Every Woman Should Know about Benzoate of Soda in Foods!,” advertisement,
    Ladies’ Home Journal January 1909 (Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania: Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh Microfilm, pp. 44-45, 569)
    124 Smith, pp. 104-105
    125 Ibid., pp. 96-97
    126 Ibid., p. 109
    127 Ibid., pp. 97-98
    128 Junod, p. 7
    129 Smith, p. 105
    130 Junod, p. 7
    131 Potter, p. 69
    132 Baker, Interview
    133 Alberts, p. 180
    134 Heinz: The Ketchup Kings

    BIBLIOGRAPHY  
    Alberts, Robert C., The Good Provider: H.J. Heinz and His 57 Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1973
     
    Byington, Margaret F., Homestead: The Households of a Mill Town Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1974
     
    Dienstag, Eleanor Foa, In Good Company: 125 Years at the Heinz Table (1869-1994) New York: Warner, 1994
     
    Foster, Debbie, and Jack Kennedy, Images of America: H.J. Heinz Company Charleston, South Carolina: Arcadia, 2006
     
    Heinz: The Ketchup Kings produced by Noah Morowitz, A&E Biography Television Networks, 1999
     
    Heinz: The Story of an American Family produced by Mary Rawson, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania: WQED, 1992
     
    Historic Meeting to Commemorate Fortieth Anniversary of Original Food and Drugs Act New York: Commerce Clearing, 1946
     
    H.J. Heinz Company Collection, Historic Pittsburgh Image Collection Library and Archives Division, Historical Society of Western Pennsylvania http://images.library.pitt.edu (accessed March 2, 2007)
     
    H.J. Heinz Company Collection, Papers, Library and Archives Division, Historical Society of Western Pennsylvania, Senator John Heinz Pittsburgh Regional History Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
     
    Koehn, Nancy F., “Henry Heinz and Brand Creation in the Late Nineteenth Century: Making Markets for Processed Food.” The Business History Review 73, no. (1999): Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania: Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh Microfilm, 527
     
    McCafferty, E. D., Henry J. Heinz: A Biography 1923

    Mueller, Sebastian, “Urges Prohibition of Artificial Preservatives,” Industry: A Magazine of Commerce and Finance 3, no. 2 (Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania: Merchants and Manufacturers Association of Pittsburgh, 1907)
     
    Potter, Stephen, The Magic Number: The Story of ‘57’ London: Max Reinhardt, 1959
     
    Sinclair, Upton, The Jungle Cambridge, Massachusetts: Robert Bentley, 1946
     
    Smith, Andrew F., Pure Ketchup: A History of America’s National Condiment (with Recipes) Columbia, South Carolina: University of South Carolina Press, 1996
     
    Wiley, Harvey W., The History of a Crime Against Food Law: The Amazing Story of the National Food and Drugs Law Intended to Protect the Health of the People: Perverted to Protect Adulteration of Foods and Drugs Washington, DC: Harvey Wiley, 1929


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